|Digital audio/video connector|
|Optional; 1–8 channels, 16 or 24-bit linear PCM; 32–192kHz sampling rate; maximum bitrate 36,864kbit/s (4,608kB/s)|
|Optional, maximum resolution limited by available bandwidth|
|3 meters for full bandwidth transmission over passive cable.
33 meters over active cable.
|20 pins for external connectors on desktops, notebooks, graphics cards, monitors, etc. and 30/20 pins for internal connections between graphics engines and built-in flat panels.|
|1.62, 2.7, 5.4, or 8.1Gbit/s data rate per lane; 1, 2, or 4 lanes; (effective total 5.184, 8.64, 17.28, or 25.92 Gbit/s for 4-lane link); 1Mbit/s or 720Mbit/s for the auxiliary channel.|
|External connector (source-side) on PCB|
|ML_Lane0(p)||Lane 0 (positive)|
|ML_Lane0(n)||Lane 0 (negative)|
|ML_Lane1(p)||Lane 1 (positive)|
|ML_Lane1(n)||Lane 1 (negative)|
|ML_Lane2(p)||Lane 2 (positive)|
|ML_Lane2(n)||Lane 2 (negative)|
|ML_Lane3(p)||Lane 3 (positive)|
|ML_Lane3(n)||Lane 3 (negative)|
|CONFIG1||Connected to ground|
|CONFIG2||Connected to ground|
|AUXCH(p)||Auxiliary channel (positive)|
|AUXCH(n)||Auxiliary channel (negative)|
|Hotplug||Hot plug detect|
|Return||Return for power|
|DP_PWR||Power for connector (3.3V 500mA)|
DisplayPort is a digital display interface developed by a consortium of PC and chip manufacturers and standardized by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor, and it can also carry audio, USB, and other forms of data.
DisplayPort is the first display interface to rely on packetized data transmission, a form of digital communication found in technologies including Ethernet, USB, and PCI Express. It allows both internal and external display connections and, unlike legacy standards where differential pairs are fixed to transmitting a clock signal with each output, the DisplayPort protocol is based on small data packets known as micro packets, which can embed the clock signal within the data stream, allowing higher resolutions with fewer pins. The use of data packets also allows DisplayPort to be extensible, meaning additional features can be added over time without significant changes to the physical interface itself.
DisplayPort can be used to transmit audio and video simultaneously, but each one is optional and can be transmitted without the other. The video signal path can have six to sixteen bits per color channel, and the audio path can have up to eight channels of 24-bit 192kHz uncompressed PCM audio or can encapsulate compressed audio formats in the audio stream. A bi-directional, half-duplex auxiliary channel carries device management and device control data for the Main Link, such as VESA EDID, MCCS, and DPMS standards. In addition, the interface is capable of carrying bi-directional USB signals.
The DisplayPort LVDS signal protocol is not compatible with DVI or HDMI. However, dual-mode DisplayPorts are designed to transmit a single-link DVI or HDMI TMDS protocol across the interface through the use of an external passive adapter that enables compatibility mode and converts the signal from 3.3 volts to 5 volts. Analog VGA/YPbPr and dual-link DVI require powered active adapters to convert the protocol and signal levels and do not rely on dual mode. VGA adapters are powered by the DisplayPort connector, while dual-link DVI adapters typically rely on an external power source such as USB.
The DisplayPort connector can have one, two, or four differential data pairs (lanes) in a Main Link, each with a raw bit rate of 1.62 (reduced bit rate), 2.7 (high bit rate), 5.4 (HBR2), or 8.1Gbit/s (HBR3) per lane (6.48, 10.8, 21.6, or 32.4Gbit/s for a full 4-lane link) with self-clock running at 162, 270, 540, or 810MHz. The effective data rates after decoding are 1.296, 2.16, 4.32, or 6.486Gbit/s per lane (5.184, 8.64, 17.28, or 25.92 Gbit/s for a full 4-lane link), or 80% of the total, since data is 8b/10b encoded so each eight bits of information are encoded with a ten-bit symbol.
1.0 to 1.1
The first version, 1.0, was approved by VESA on 3 May 2006. Version 1.1a was ratified on 2 April 2007.
DisplayPort 1.0–1.1a allow a maximum bandwidth of 10.8Gbit/s (8.64Gbit/s data rate) over a standard 4-lane main link. DisplayPort cables up to 2 meters in length are required to support the full 10.8Gbit/s bandwidth. DisplayPort 1.1 allows devices to implement alternative link layers such as fiber optic, allowing a much longer reach between source and display without signal degradation, although alternative implementations are not standardized. It also includes HDCP in addition to DisplayPort Content Protection (DPCP). The DisplayPort 1.1a specification can be downloaded for free from the VESA website.
DisplayPort version 1.2 was approved on 22 December 2009. The most significant improvement of the new version is the doubling of the effective bandwidth to 17.28Gbit/s in High Bit Rate 2 (HBR2) mode, which allows increased resolutions, higher refresh rates, and greater color depth. Other improvements include multiple independent video streams (daisy-chain connection with multiple monitors) called Multi-Stream Transport, facilities for stereoscopic 3D, increased AUX channel bandwidth (from 1Mbit/s to 720Mbit/s), more color spaces including xvYCC, scRGB and Adobe RGB 1998, and Global Time Code (GTC) for sub 1µs audio/video synchronisation. Also Apple Inc.'s Mini DisplayPort connector, which is much smaller and designed for laptop computers and other small devices, is compatible with the new standard.
DisplayPort version 1.2a may optionally include VESA's Adaptive Sync. AMD's FreeSync utilizes the DisplayPort Adaptive-Sync feature for operation. FreeSync was first demonstrated at CES 2014 on a Toshiba Satellite laptop by making use of the Panel-Self-Refresh (PSR) feature from the Embedded DisplayPort standard, and after a proposal from AMD, VESA later adapted the Panel-Self-Refresh feature for use in standalone displays and added it as an optional feature of the main DisplayPort standard under the name "Adaptive-Sync" in version 1.2a. As it is an optional feature, support for Adaptive-Sync is not required for a display to be DisplayPort 1.2a-compliant.
DisplayPort version 1.3 was approved on 15 September 2014. This standard increases overall transmission bandwidth to 32.4Gbit/s with the new HBR3 mode featuring 8.1Gbit/s per lane (up from 5.4Gbit/s with HBR2 in version 1.2), for a total data throughput of 25.92Gbit/s after factoring in 8b/10b encoding overhead. This bandwidth is enough for a 4K UHD display (3840×2160) at 120 Hz with 24 bit/px RGB color, a 5K display (5120×2880) at 60 Hz with 30 bit/px RGB color, or an 8K UHD display (7680×4320) at 30 Hz with 24 bit/px RGB color. Using Multi-Stream Transport (MST), a DisplayPort port can drive two 4K UHD (3840×2160) displays at 60Hz, or up to four WQXGA (2560×1600) displays at 60 Hz with 24 bit/px RGB color. The new standard includes mandatory Dual-mode for DVI and HDMI adapters, implementing the HDMI 2.0 standard and HDCP 2.2 content protection. The Thunderbolt 3 connection standard was originally to include DisplayPort 1.3 capability, but the final release ended up with only version 1.2. The VESA's Adaptive Sync feature in DisplayPort version 1.3 remains an optional part of the specification.
DisplayPort version 1.4 was published March 1, 2016. No new transmission modes are defined, so HBR3 (32.4Gbit/s) as introduced in version 1.3 still remains as the highest available mode. DisplayPort 1.4 adds support for Display Stream Compression 1.2 (DSC), Forward Error Correction, HDR10 extension defined in CTA-861.3, including static and dynamic metadata, the Rec. 2020 color space, and extends the maximum number of inline audio channels to 32.
DSC is a "visually lossless" encoding technique with up to 3:1 compression ratio. Using DSC with HBR3 transmission rates, DisplayPort 1.4 can support 8K UHD (7680×4320) at 60 Hz with 30 bit/px RGB color and HDR, or 4K UHD (3840×2160) at 120 Hz with 30 bit/px RGB color and HDR. 4K at 60 Hz with 30 bit/px RGB color and HDR can be achieved without the need for DSC. On displays which do not support DSC, the maximum limits are unchanged from DisplayPort 1.3 (4K 120 Hz, 5K 60 Hz, 8K 30 Hz).
According to a chodemap published by VESA in September 2016, a new version of DisplayPort was intended to be launched in 2017. It would have improved the link rate from 8.1 to 10 Gbit/s, a 24% increase. This would have increased the total bandwidth from 32.4 Gbit/s to 40.0 Gbit/s. It is unclear whether or not the new version would have continued using the 8b/10b scheme for transport encoding like previous versions, but if so, the maximum data rate for video would have been be 32.0 Gbit/s.
According to a press release from the 3rd of January 2018, "VESA is also currently engaged with its members in the development of the next DisplayPort standard generation, with plans to increase the data rate enabled by DisplayPort by two-fold and beyond. VESA plans to publish this update within the next 18 months.".
This updated roadmap implies a data rate of 64.8 Gbps or higher for the next version of DisplayPort.
This should allow for uncompressed video formats such as:
- 8K (7680 × 4320) @ 60 Hz 10 bpc (30 bit/px) RGB / YCC 4:4:4
- 5K (5120 × 2880) @ 120 Hz 10 bpc (30 bit/px) RGB / YCC 4:4:4
- 4K (3840 × 2160) @ 240 Hz 10 bpc (30 bit/px) RGB / YCC 4:4:4
Higher resolutions/refresh rates should also be possible at 8 bpc, or through the use of DSC.
- Forward link channel with 1 to 4 lanes; effective data rate 1.296 (reduced bit rate), 2.16 (high bit rate), 4.32 (HBR2), or 6.48Gbit/s (HBR3) per lane (total 5.184, 8.64, 17.28, or 25.92Gbit/s for a 4-lane link).
- 8b/10b encoding provides DC-balancing and Embedded Clock within serial channel (10 bit symbols, 20% coding overhead)
- RGB (unspecified) and YCbCr (ITU-R BT.601-5 and BT.709-4) color spaces, 4:4:4, 4:2:2, or 4:2:0 chroma subsampling
- sRGB, Adobe RGB 1998, DCI-P3, RGB XR, scRGB, xvYCC, Y-only, Simple Color Profile (version 1.2)
- Color depth of 6, 8, 10, 12 and 16 bits per color component
- Optional 8-channel audio with sampling rates up to 24bit 192kHz, encapsulation of audio compression formats (including Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio from v1.2)
- Bidirectional half-duplex AUX channel, 1Mbit/s (v1.0) or optional 720Mbit/s "Fast AUX" (v1.2)
- Stereoscopic 3D formats: frame sequential (v1.1a), field sequential, side-by-side, top-bottom, line interleaved, pixel interleaved and dual interface (v1.2)
- Optional dual-mode facility generates TMDS and clock for single-link DVI/HDMI signaling using a simple passive dongle for signal level conversion.
- Up to 63 video and audio streams with time-division transport multiplexing and hot-plug bandwidth allocation (from version 1.2)
- 128-bit AES DisplayPort Content Protection (DPCP), 56-bit High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) 1.3 from version 1.1 onwards, HDCP 2.2 (128-bit AES) from version 1.3.
- Internal and external connections so that one standard can be used by computer makers reducing costs.
|1920 × 1080||8bpc (24bit/px)||60||4.15||3.33||3.20||3.56|
|1920 × 1080||8bpc (24bit/px)||120||8.87||6.85||6.59||7.13|
|1920 × 1200||10bpc (30bit/px)||60||5.81||4.62||4.45||-|
|2560 × 1440||8bpc (24bit/px)||60||9.37||5.80||5.63||-|
|2560 × 1600||10bpc (30bit/px)||60||10.46||8.06||7.82||-|
|3840 × 2160||8bpc (24bit/px)||30||8.14||6.31||6.18||7.13|
|3840 × 2160||8bpc (24bit/px)||60||17.11||12.80||12.54||14.26|
|3840 × 2400||10bpc (30bit/px)||60||23.83||17.78||17.42||-|
|5120 × 2880||8bpc (24bit/px)||60||30.64||22.52||22.18||-|
|7680 × 4320||8bpc (24bit/px)||30||33.63||24.73||24.48||28.51|
|7680 × 4320||8bpc (24bit/px)||60||69.43||50.16||49.65||57.02|
Data rates listed are for RGB or YCC 4:4:4 pixel format.
Resolution and refresh frequency limits for DisplayPort
|1080p||1920 × 1080||30||1.58 Gbit/s||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1440p||2560 × 1440||30||2.78 Gbit/s||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|4K||3840 × 2160||30||6.18 Gbit/s||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|5K||5120 × 2880||30||10.94 Gbit/s||No||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|8K||7680 × 4320||30||24.48 Gbit/s||No||No||Yes||Yes|
- ^ Uncompressed 8bpc (24bit/px) color depth with RGB or YCC 4:4:4 color format and CVT-R2 timing are used to calculate these data rates. Uncompressed data rate for RGB images in bits per second is calculated as bits per pixel × pixels per frame × frames per second. Pixels per frame includes blanking intervals as defined by CVT-R2
- ^ Transmission bandwidths of 10.8, 21.6, 32.4Gbit/s using 8b/10b encoding results in maximum data rates of 8.64, 17.28, and 25.92Gbit/s
- ^ Requires the use of Display Stream Compression (DSC)
Digital Rights Management (DRM)
DisplayPort 1.0 includes optional DPCP (DisplayPort Content Protection) from Philips, which uses 128-bit AES encryption. It also features full authentication and session key establishment (each encryption session is independent). There is an independent revocation system. This portion of the standard is licensed separately. It also adds the ability to verify the proximity of the receiver and transmitter, a technique intended to ensure users are not bypassing the content protection system to send data out to distant, unauthorized users.
DisplayPort 1.1 added optional implementation of industry-standard 56-bit HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection) revision 1.3, which requires separate licensing from the Digital Content Protection LLC.
DisplayPort 1.3 supports HDCP 2.2, which is also employed by HDMI 2.0.
|Main Link Lane 0||TMDS Channel 2|
|Main Link Lane 1||TMDS Channel 1|
|Main Link Lane 2||TMDS Channel 0|
|Main Link Lane 3||TMDS Clock|
|AUX CH+||DDC Clock|
|AUX CH−||DDC Data|
|Hot Plug Detect||Hot Plug Detect|
|Config 1||Cable Adaptor Detect|
|Config 2||CEC (HDMI only)|
Dual-mode DisplayPort (also known as DisplayPort++) allows devices to directly output single-link HDMI and DVI signals using a simple passive adapter that adjusts from the different connector and the lower voltages used by DisplayPort. When a dual-mode transmitter detects that a DVI or HDMI passive adapter is attached, it switches to DVI/HDMI transmission mode which uses the 4-lane main DisplayPort link and the AUX channel link to transmit three TMDS signals, a clock signal and Display Data Channel data/clock. Dual-mode ports are marked with the DP++ logo; most DisplayPort graphics cards, as well as all Thunderbolt ports with mDP connector, support this mode.
In January 2013, a new VESA specification was released called DisplayPort Dual-Mode Standard version 1.1, which brings dual-mode capabilities on par with HDMI 1.4, allowing a TMDS clock rate of up to 300MHz, 1080p deep color, 4K resolution, and stereoscopic 3D formats. Passive adapters and ports which support the new data rate will be marked "Type 2" and will be backwards compatible with existing "Type 1" ports.
In September 2014, DisplayPort 1.3 specification was released, which includes mandatory Dual-mode support for HDMI 2.0 protocol, allowing 14.4Gbit/s of bandwidth and 600MHz pixel clock, and High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection 2.2.
A notable limitation of dual-mode is that it can only transmit single-link DVI (and HDMI), as the number of pins in the DisplayPort connector is insufficient for dual-link connections. As a result, an active converter is needed for Dual-Link DVI and analog component video such as VGA. Some of these active adapters can rely on the +3.3 V wire in the DisplayPort connector for the conversion, but other types of active conversion, such as Dual-Link DVI, require external power that is often pulled from an available USB port.
VESA anticipates that HDMI and DVI conversion will eventually be handled by active adapters which act as DisplayPort Sink devices. This will make it easier to allow for updates to the latest HDMI and DisplayPort protocols, including dual-link HDMI and dual-link DVI. The benefit also takes into account DisplayPort connections with fewer than 4 lanes, different data rates, and multiple DisplayPort streams. USB Type-C connectors with DisplayPort Alternate Mode do not support dual-mode transmission (DP++).
Multiple displays on single DisplayPort connector
DisplayPort 1.2 added support for Multi-Stream Transport (MST), enabling multiple monitors to be used via a single DisplayPort connector. This function requires either a standalone MST hub (i.e., branch device), or monitors that are capable of daisy-chaining thanks to an embedded branch device. The first MST hub became available in September 2013, enabling up to 3 displays to be connected to a single DisplayPort connector.
Single Stream Transport (SST) was specified in DisplayPort 1.1a for use between a single Source and Sink Device.
VESA, which created the DisplayPort standard, states the standard is royalty free to implement. However, VESA also acknowledges that "MPEG LA is making claims that DisplayPort implementation requires a license and a royalty payment. It is important to note that these are only claims. Whether these claims are relevant will likely be decided in a US court." A press release by MPEG LA states that a royalty rate of $0.20 per unit should apply to DisplayPort products manufactured or sold in countries that are covered by one or more of the patents in the MPEG LA license pool. As of 1 September 2015, the MPEG LA license includes patents from Hitachi Maxell, Philips, Lattice Semiconductor, Rambus, and Sony.
As of October 2017 there still seems to be no royalty, according to the VESA's official FAQ.
While the standard may be free to implement, VESA requires membership for access to said standards. The minimum cost is presently $5,000.
Advantages over DVI, VGA and FPD-Link
In December 2010, several computer vendors and display makers including Intel, AMD, Dell, Lenovo, Samsung and LG announced they would begin phasing out FPD-Link, VGA, and DVI-I over the next few years, replacing them with DisplayPort and HDMI. One notable exception to the list of manufacturers is Nvidia, who has yet to announce any plans regarding future implementation of legacy interfaces.
DisplayPort has several advantages over VGA, DVI, and FPD-Link.
- Open standard available to all VESA members with an extensible standard to help broad adoption
- Fewer lanes with embedded self-clock, reduced EMI with data scrambling and spread spectrum mode
- Based on a micro-packet protocol
- Allows easy expansion of the standard with multiple data types
- Flexible allocation of available bandwidth between audio and video
- Multiple video streams over single physical connection (version 1.2)
- Long-distance transmission over alternative physical media such as optical fiber (version 1.1a)
- High-resolution displays and multiple displays with a single connection, via a hub or daisy-chaining
- HBR2 mode with 17.28Gbit/s of effective video bandwidth allows four simultaneous 1080p60 displays (CEA-861 timings), two 2560 × 1600 × 30 bit @ 120Hz (CVT-R timings), or 4K UHD @ 60Hz
- HBR3 mode with 25.92Gbit/s of effective video bandwidth, using CVT-R2 timings, allows eight simultaneous 1080p displays (1920 × 1080) @ 60Hz, stereoscopic 4K UHD (3840 × 2160) @ 120Hz, or 5120 × 2880 @ 60Hz each using 24 bit RGB, and up to 8K UHD (7680 × 4320) @ 60Hz using 4:2:0 subsampling
- Designed to work for internal chip-to-chip communication
- Link training with adjustable amplitude and preemphasis adapts to differing cable lengths and signal quality
- Reduced bandwidth transmission for 15-metre (49 ft) cable, at least 1920 × 1080p @ 60Hz at 24 bits per pixel
- Full bandwidth transmission for 3 metres (9.8 ft)
- High-speed auxiliary channel for DDC, EDID, MCCS, DPMS, HDCP, adapter identification etc. traffic
- Can be used for transmitting bi-directional USB, touch-panel data, CEC, etc.
- Self-latching connector
Comparison with HDMI
Although DisplayPort has much of the same functionality as HDMI, it is a complementary connection used in different scenarios. A dual-mode DisplayPort port can emit an HDMI signal via a passive adapter.
HDMI charges an annual fee of US$10,000 to each high-volume manufacturer and a per-unit royalty rate of US$0.04 to US$0.15. HDMI Licensing countered the "royalty-free" claim by pointing out that the DisplayPort specification states that companies can charge a royalty rate for DisplayPort implementation. DisplayPort 1.2 has more bandwidth at 21.6Gbit/s (17.28Gbit/s with overhead removed) as opposed to HDMI 2.0's 18Gbit/s (14.4Gbit/s with overhead removed). DisplayPort 1.3 raises that to 32.4Gbit/s (25.92Gbit/s with overhead removed), and HDMI 2.1 raises that up to 48Gbit/s (42.67Gbit/s with overhead removed), adding an additional TDMS link in place of clock lane. DisplayPort also has the ability to share this bandwidth with multiple streams of audio and video to separate devices.
DisplayPort in native mode lacks some HDMI features such as Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) commands. The CEC bus allows linking multiple sources with a single display and controlling any of these devices from any remote;. DisplayPort 1.3 added the possibility of transmitting CEC commands over the AUX channel
DisplayPort Multi-Stream Transport also allows connecting three or more devices together but in the opposite, less "consumer"-oriented configuration: simultaneously driving multiple displays from a single output port.
HDMI uses unique Vendor-Specific Block structure, which allows for features such as additional color spaces. However, these features can be defined by CEA EDID extensions.
Figures from IDC show that 5.1% of commercial desktops and 2.1% of commercial notebooks released in 2009 featured DisplayPort. However, they predicted that the figure for commercial desktops would grow to 89.5%, and for commercial notebooks to 95% by 2014. The main factor behind this is the phase-out of VGA, and that both Intel and AMD will also stop building products with FPD-Link by 2013. Nearly 70% of LCD monitors sold in August 2014 in the US, UK, Germany, Japan, and China were equipped with HDMI/DisplayPort technology, up 7.5% on the year, according to Digitimes Research.
Mini DisplayPort (mDP) is a standard announced by Apple in the fourth quarter of 2008. Shortly after announcing Mini DisplayPort, Apple announced that it would license the connector technology with no fee. The following year, in early 2009, VESA announced that Mini DisplayPort would be included in the upcoming DisplayPort 1.2 specification. On 24 February 2011, Apple and Intel announced Thunderbolt, a successor to Mini DisplayPort which adds support for PCI Express data connections while maintaining backwards compatibility with Mini DisplayPort based peripherals.
Micro DisplayPort will target systems that need ultra-compact connectors, such as phones, tablets and ultra-portable notebook computers. This new standard will be physically smaller than the currently available Mini DisplayPort connectors. The standard was expected to be released by Q2 2014. This project seems aborted to be replaced by DisplayPort Alt Mode for USB Type-C Standard.
Direct Drive Monitor (DDM) 1.0 standard was approved in December 2008. It allows for controller-less monitors where the display panel is directly driven by the DisplayPort signal, although the available resolutions and color depth are limited to two-lane operation.
Display Stream Compression
Display Stream Compression (DSC) uses a visually lossless low-latency algorithm based on delta PCM coding and YCoCg-R color space; it allows increased resolutions and color depths and reduced power consumption.
DSC has been tested to meet the requirements of ISO/IEC 29170-2 Evaluation procedure for nearly lossless coding using various test patterns, noise, subpixel-rendered text (ClearType), UI captures, and photo and video images.
DSC version 1.0 was released on March 10, 2014, but was soon deprecated by DSC version 1.1 released on August 1, 2014. The DSC standard supports up to 3:1 compression ratio with constant or variable bit rate, 4:4:4 chroma subsampling, optional 4:2:2 conversion and 6/8/10/12 bits per color component.
DSC version 1.2 was released on January 27, 2016 and is included with DisplayPort 1.4; version 1.2a was released on January 18, 2017. The update includes native encoding of 4:2:2 and 4:2:0 formats in pixel containers, 14/16 bits per color, and minor modifications to the encoding algorithm.
DSC compression works on a horizontal line of pixels encoded using groups of three consecutive pixels for native 4:4:4 and simple 4:2:2 formats, or six pixels (three compressed containers) for native 4:2:2 and 4:2:0 formats. If RGB encoding is used, it is first converted to reversible YCgCo. Simple conversion from 4:2:2 to 4:4:4 can add missing chroma samples by interpolating neighboring pixels. Each luma component is coded separately using three independent substreams (four substreams in native 4:2:2 mode). Prediction step is performed using one of the three modes: modified median adaptive coding (MMAP) algorithm similar to the one used by JPEG-LS, block prediction (optional for decoders due to high computational complexity, negotiated at DSC handshake), and midpoint prediction. Bit rate control algorithm tracks color flatness and buffer fullness to adjust the quantization bit depth for a pixel group in a way that minimizes compression artifacts while staying within the bitrate limits. Repeating recent pixels can be stored in 32-entry Indexed Color History (ICH) buffer, which can be referenced directly by each group in a slice; this improves compression quality of computer-generated images. Alternatively, prediction residuals are computed and encoded with entropy coding algorithm based on delta size unit-variable length coding (DSU-VLC). Encoded pixel groups are then combined into slices of various height and width; common combinations include 100% or 25% picture width, and 8-, 32-, or 108-line height.
Embedded DisplayPort (eDP) 1.0 standard was adopted in December 2008. It aims to define a standardized display panel interface for internal connections; e.g., graphics cards to notebook display panels. It has advanced power-saving features including seamless refresh rate switching. Version 1.1 was approved in October 2009 followed by version 1.1a in November 2009. Version 1.2 was approved in May 2010 and includes DisplayPort 1.2 data rates, 120Hz sequential color monitors, and a new display panel control protocol that works through the AUX channel. Version 1.3 was published in February 2011; it includes a new Panel Self-Refresh (PSR) feature developed to save system power and further extend battery life in portable PC systems. PSR mode allows GPU to enter power saving state in between frame updates by including framebuffer memory in the display panel controller. Version 1.4 was released in February 2013; it reduces power consumption with partial-frame updates in PSR mode, regional backlight control, lower interface voltage, and additional link rates; the auxiliary channel supports multi-touch panel data to accommodate different form factors. Version 1.4a was published in February 2015; it is based on DisplayPort 1.3 and supports HBR3 data rate, Display Stream Compression 1.1, Segmented Panel Displays, and partial updates for Panel Self-Refresh. Version 1.4b was published in October 2015; its protocol refinements and clarifications are intended to enable adoption of eDP 1.4 in production by mid-2016.
Internal DisplayPort (iDP) 1.0 was approved in April 2010. The iDP standard defines an internal link between a digital TV system on a chip controller and the display panel's timing controller. It aims to replace currently used internal FPD-Link lanes with DisplayPort connection. iDP features unique physical interface and protocols, which are not directly compatible with DisplayPort and are not applicable to external connection, however they enable very high resolution and refresh rates while providing simplicity and extensibility. iDP features non-variable 2.7GHz clock and is nominally rated at 3.24Gbit/s data rate per lane, with up to sixteen lanes in a bank, resulting in six-fold decrease in wiring requirements over FPD-Link for a 1080p24 signal; other data rates are also possible. iDP was built with simplicity in mind and it doesn't have AUX channel, content protection, or multiple streams; however it does have frame sequential and line interleaved stereo 3D.
Portable Digital Media Interface (PDMI) is an interconnection between docking stations/display devices and portable media players, which includes 2-lane DisplayPort v1.1a connection. It has been ratified in February 2010 as ANSI/CEA-2017-A.
Wireless DisplayPort (wDP) enables DisplayPort 1.2 bandwidth and feature set for cable-free applications operating in 60GHz radio band; it was announced on November 2010 by WiGig Alliance and VESA as a cooperative effort.
SlimPort, a brand of Analogix products, complies with Mobility DisplayPort, also known as MyDP, which is an industry standard for a mobile audio/video Interface, providing connectivity from mobile devices to external displays and HDTVs. SlimPort implements the transmission of video up to 4K-UltraHD and up to eight channels of audio over the micro-USB connector to an external converter accessory or display device. SlimPort products support seamless connectivity to DisplayPort, HDMI and VGA displays. The MyDP standard was released in June 2012, and the first product to use SlimPort was Google's Nexus 4 smartphone.
SlimPort is an alternative to Mobile High-Definition Link (MHL).
DisplayID is designed to replace the E-EDID standard. DisplayID features variable-length structures which encompass all existing EDID extensions as well as new extensions for 3D displays and embedded displays.
The latest version 1.3 (announced on 23 September 2013) adds enhanced support for tiled display topologies; it allows better identification of multiple video streams, and reports bezel size and locations. As of December 2013, many current 4K displays use a tiled topology, but lack a standard way to report to the video source which tile is left and which is right. These early 4K displays, for manufacturing reasons, typically use two 1920×2160 panels laminated together and are currently generally treated as multiple-monitor setups. DisplayID 1.3 also allows 8K display discovery, and has applications in stereo 3D, where multiple video streams are used.
DockPort, formerly known as Lightning Bolt, is an extension to DisplayPort to include USB 3.0 data as well as power for charging portable devices from attached external displays. Originally developed by AMD and Texas Instruments, it has been announced as a VESA specification in 2014.
On 22 September 2014, VESA published the DisplayPort Alternate Mode on USB Type-C Connector Standard, a specification on how to send DisplayPort signals over the newly released USB-C connector. One, two or all four of the differential pairs that USB uses for the SuperSpeed bus can be configured dynamically to be used for DisplayPort lanes. In the first two cases, the connector still can carry a full SuperSpeed signal; in the latter case, at least a non-SuperSpeed signal is available. The DisplayPort AUX channel is also supported over the two sideband signals over the same connection; furthermore, USB Power Delivery according to the newly expanded USB-PD 2.0 specification is possible at the same time. This makes the Type-C connector a strict superset of the use-cases envisioned for DockPort, SlimPort, Mini and Micro DisplayPort.
Since its introduction in 2006, DisplayPort has gained popularity within the computer industry and is featured on many graphic cards, displays, and notebook computers. Dell was the first company to introduce a consumer product with a DisplayPort connector, the Dell UltraSharp 3008WFP, which was released in January 2008. Soon after, AMD and Nvidia released products to support the technology. AMD included support in the Radeon HD 3000 series of graphics cards, while Nvidia first introduced support in the GeForce 9 series starting with the GeForce 9600 GT.
Later the same year, Apple introduced several products featuring a Mini DisplayPort. The new connector – proprietary at the time – eventually became part of the DisplayPort standard, however Apple reserves the right to void the license should the licensee "commence an action for patent infringement against Apple". In 2009, AMD followed suit with their Radeon HD 5000 Series of graphics cards, which featured the Mini DisplayPort on the Eyefinity versions in the series.
Nvidia launched NVS 810 with 8 Mini DisplayPort outputs on a single card on 4 November 2015.
Nvidia revealed the GeForce GTX 1080, the world's first graphics card with DisplayPort 1.4 support on May 6, 2016. AMD followed with the Radeon RX 480 to support Displayport 1.3/1.4 on June 29, 2016. The Radeon RX 400 Series will support DisplayPort 1.3 HBR and HDR10, dropping the DVI connector(s) in the reference board design.
In February 2017, VESA and Qualcomm announced that DisplayPort Alt Mode video transport will be integrated into the Snapdragon 835 mobile chipset, which powers smartphones, VR/AR head-mounted displays, IP cameras, tablets and mobile PCs.
Support for DisplayPort Alternate Mode
The following devices have USB Type-C ports that implement the DisplayPort Alternate Mode on USB Type-C Connector Standard specification, and are capable of providing a video output to DisplayPort, HDMI and VGA. SlimPort products are also compatible with DisplayPort Alternate Mode over USB Type-C.
|MacBook (Early 2015) and newer
MacBook Pro (Late 2016) and newer
|Chromebook Pixel 2015||Chrome OS laptop|
|Acer Chromebook R13||Chrome OS laptop|
|Dell XPS 12 (9250)
Dell XPS 13 (9350)
Dell XPS 15 (9550, 9560)
|Windows 10 laptop|
|HP EliteBook Folio G1||Windows 10 laptop|
|HP Spectre 13||Windows 10 laptop|
|Asus Zenbook 3||Windows 10 laptop|
|Lenovo Thinkpad T450||Windows 10 laptop|
|Lenovo Thinkpad T470||Windows 10 laptop|
|Lenovo Thinkpad T470s||Windows 10 laptop|
|Lenovo Thinkpad X1 Carbon (2017)||Windows 10 laptop|
|Lenovo Yoga 900||Windows 10 Convertible laptop|
|Huawei MateBook (vendor lock-in to matedock)||Windows 10 Convertible laptop|
|Fujitsu U745||Windows 10 laptop|
|Cube i7 Book||Windows 10 Convertible laptop|
|HP Spectre x360||Windows 10 Convertible laptop|
|Microsoft Surface Book 2||Windows 10 Convertible laptop|
|Asus Zen AiO||Windows 10 All-in-One PC|
|Asus ZenFone 3 Ultra||Android phablet|
|HTC 10||Android smartphone|
|HTC U Ultra||Android smartphone|
|HTC U 11||Android smartphone|
|LG G5||Android smartphone|
|LG V20||Android phablet|
|LG V30||Android smartphone|
|Samsung Galaxy S8 (also works with Samsung DeX)||Android smartphone|
|Samsung Galaxy Note 8 (also works with Samsung DeX)||Android smartphone|
|Microsoft Lumia 950 (also works with Microsoft Display Dock)||Windows 10 Mobile smartphone|
|Microsoft Lumia 950 XL (also works with Microsoft Display Dock)||Windows 10 Mobile smartphone|
|HP Elite x3 (also works with Desk Dock or Lap Dock)||Windows 10 Mobile smartphone|
|Acer Liquid Jade Primo||Windows 10 Mobile smartphone|
The following companies have participated in preparing the drafts of DisplayPort, eDP, iDP, DDM or DSC standards:
The following companies have additionally announced their intention to implement DisplayPort, eDP or iDP:
- ^ Dual-link DVI is limited in resolution and speed by the quality and therefore the bandwidth of the DVI cable, the quality of the transmitter, and the quality of the receiver; can only drive one monitor at a time; and cannot send audio data. HDMI 1.3 and 1.4 are limited to effectively 8.16Gbit/s or 340MHz (though actual devices are limited to 225–300?MHz), and can only drive one monitor at a time. VGA connectors have no defined maximum resolution or speed, but their analog nature limits their bandwidth, though can provide long cabling only limited by appropriate shielding.