|Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm
9 June 1917
Alexandria, Sultanate of Egypt
|1 October 2012 (aged 95)
London, England, UK
|Historian, social theorist and author|
|King's College, Cambridge|
|World history, Western history|
|Muriel Seaman (1943–1951);
|Joshua Bennathan, Julia and Andy Hobsbawm|
Eric John Ernest Hobsbawm CH FRSL FBA (/ˈhɒbz.bɔːm/; 9 June 1917 – 1 October 2012) was a British Marxist historian of the rise of industrial capitalism, socialism and nationalism. His best-known works include his trilogy about what he called the "long 19th century" (The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789–1848, The Age of Capital: 1848–1875 and The Age of Empire: 1875–1914), The Age of Extremes on the short 20th century, and an edited volume that introduced the influential idea of "invented traditions".
Hobsbawm was born in Egypt but spent his childhood mostly in Vienna and Berlin. Following the death of his parents and the rise to power of Adolf Hitler, Hobsbawm moved to London with his adoptive family, then obtained his PhD in history at the University of Cambridge before serving in the Second World War. In 1998 he was appointed to the Order of the Companions of Honour. He was President of Birkbeck, University of London from 2002 until his death. In 2003 he received the Balzan Prize for European History since 1900 "for his brilliant analysis of the troubled history of 20th century Europe and for his ability to combine in-depth historical research with great literary talent."
Early life and education
Hobsbawm was born in 1917 in Alexandria, Egypt, to Leopold Percy Hobsbaum (né Obstbaum), a merchant from the East End of London who was of Polish Jewish descent, and Nelly Hobsbaum (née Grün), who was from a middle-class Austrian Jewish family background. His early childhood was spent in Vienna, Austria and Berlin, Germany. A clerical error at birth altered his surname from Hobsbaum to Hobsbawm. Although the family lived in German-speaking countries, his parents spoke to him and his younger sister Nancy in English.
In 1929, when Hobsbawm was 12, his father died, and he started contributing to his family's support by working as an au pair and English tutor. Upon the death of their mother two years later (in 1931), he and Nancy were adopted by their maternal aunt, Gretl, and paternal uncle, Sidney, who married and had a son named Peter. Hobsbawm was a student at the Prinz Heinrich-Gymnasium Berlin (today Friedrich-List-School) when Hitler came to power in 1933; that year the family moved to London, where Hobsbawm enrolled in St Marylebone Grammar School (now defunct).
Hobsbawm attended King's College, Cambridge, from 1936, where he took a double-starred first in History and was elected to the Cambridge Apostles. He received a doctorate (PhD) in History from Cambridge University for his dissertation on the Fabian Society. During the Second World War, he served in the Royal Engineers and the Army Educational Corps.
Hobsbawm's first marriage was to Muriel Seaman in 1943. They divorced in 1951. His second marriage was to Marlene Schwarz, with whom he had two children, Julia Hobsbawm and Andy Hobsbawm. Julia is chief executive of Hobsbawm Media and Marketing and a visiting professor of public relations at the College of Communication, University of the Arts London. He also had an out-of-wedlock son, Joshua Bennathan, who died in November 2014.
In 1947, he became a lecturer in history at Birkbeck. He became reader in 1959, professor between 1970 and 1982 and an emeritus professor of history in 1982. He was a Fellow of King's College, Cambridge, from 1949 to 1955. Hobsbawm said there was a weaker version of McCarthyism that took hold in Britain and affected Marxist academics: "you didn't get promotion for 10 years, but nobody threw you out". Hobsbawm was also denied a lectureship at Cambridge by political enemies, and, given that he was also blocked for a time from a professorship at Birkbeck for the same reasons, spoke of his good fortune at having got a post at Birkbeck in 1948 before the Cold War really started to take off. Conservative commentator David Pryce-Jones has questioned the existence of such career obstacles.
Hobsbawm helped found the academic journal Past & Present in 1952. He was a visiting professor at Stanford in the 1960s. In 1970, he was appointed professor and in 1978 he became a Fellow of the British Academy. He was elected a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1971 and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature in 2006.
He retired in 1982 but stayed as visiting professor at The New School for Social Research in Manhattan between 1984–97. He was, until his death, president of Birkbeck (from 2002) and professor emeritus in the New School for Social Research in the Political Science Department. A polyglot, he spoke German, English, French, Spanish and Italian fluently, and read Portuguese and Catalan.
Hobsbawm wrote extensively on many subjects as one of Britain's most prominent historians. As a Marxist historiographer he has focused on analysis of the "dual revolution" (the political French Revolution and the British Industrial Revolution). He saw their effect as a driving force behind the predominant trend towards liberal capitalism today. Another recurring theme in his work was social banditry, which Hobsbawm placed in a social and historical context, thus countering the traditional view of it being a spontaneous and unpredictable form of primitive rebellion. He also coined the term "long nineteenth century", which begins with the French Revolution in 1789 and ends with the start of the Great War in 1914.
Outside his academic historical writing, Hobsbawm wrote a regular column (under the pseudonym Francis Newton, taken from the name of Billie Holiday's communist trumpet player, Frankie Newton) for the New Statesman as a jazz critic, and time to time over popular music such as with his "Beatles and before" article. He published numerous essays in various intellectual journals, dealing with subjects such as barbarity in the modern age, the troubles of labour movements, and the conflict between anarchism and communism. Among his final publications were Globalisation, Democracy and Terrorism (2007), On Empire (2008) and the collection of essays How to Change the World: Marx and Marxism 1840–2011 (2011).
Hobsbawm joined the Sozialistischer Schülerbund (Association of Socialist Pupils), an offshoot of the Young Communist League of Germany, in Berlin in 1931, and the Communist Party in 1936. He was a member of the Communist Party Historians Group from 1946 until its demise and subsequently president of its successor, the Socialist History Society until his death. The Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956 led most of its members to leave the British Communist Party – but Hobsbawm, unique among his notable colleagues, remained in the party. He signed a historians' letter of protest against the Soviet invasion of Hungary and was strongly in favour of the Prague spring.
Hobsbawm was later a leading light of the Eurocommunist faction in the CPGB that began to gather strength after 1968, when the CPGB criticised the Soviet crushing of the Prague Spring and the French CP failed to support the May students in Paris. In "The Forward March of Labour Halted?" (originally a Marx Memorial Lecture, "The British Working Class One Hundred Years after Marx", that was delivered to a small audience of fellow Marxists in March 1978 before being published in Marxism Today in September 1978), he argued that the working class was inevitably losing its central role in society, and that left-wing parties could no longer appeal only to this class; a controversial viewpoint in a period of trade union militancy. Hobsbawm supported Neil Kinnock's transformation of the British Labour Party from 1983 (the party received just 28% of the vote in that year's elections, just 2% more than the Social Democratic Party/Liberal Alliance), and, though not close to Kinnock, came to be referred to as "Neil Kinnock's Favourite Marxist". His interventions in Kinnock's remaking of the Labour Party helped prepare the ground for the Third Way, New Labour, and Tony Blair, whom Hobsbawm later derisively referred to as "Thatcher in trousers". Until the cessation of publication in 1991, he contributed to the magazine Marxism Today. A third of the 30 reprints of Marxism Today's feature articles that appeared in The Guardian during the 1980s were articles or interviews by or with Hobsbawm, making him by far the most popular of all contributors. From the 1960s, his politics took a more moderate turn, as Hobsbawm came to recognise that his hopes were unlikely to be realised, and no longer advocated "socialist systems of the Soviet type". Until the day of his death, however, he remained firmly entrenched on the Left, maintaining that the long-term outlooks for humanity were 'bleak'. "I think we ought to get out of that 20th-century habit of thinking of systems as mutually exclusive: you’re either socialist or you’re capitalist, or whatever," Hobsbawm has stated in regards to the emergence of a new historical system. "There are plenty of people who still think so. I think very few attempts have been made to build a system on the total assumption of social ownership and social management. At its peak the Soviet system tried it. And in the past 20 or 30 years, the capitalist system has also tried it. In both cases, the results demonstrate that it won’t work. So it seems to me the problem isn’t whether this market system disappears, but exactly what the nature of the mixture between market economy and public economy is and, above all, in my view, what the social objectives of that economy are. One of the worst things about the politics of the past 30 years is that the rich have forgotten to be afraid of the poor – of most of the people in the world."
Communism and Russia
Hobsbawm stressed that since communism was not created, the sacrifices were in fact not justified—a point he emphasised in Age of Extremes:
Elsewhere he insisted:
With regard to the 1930s, he wrote that
He claimed that the demise of the USSR was "traumatic not only for communists but for socialists everywhere",
Regarding the Queen, Hobsbawm stated that constitutional monarchy in general has "proved a reliable framework for liberal-democratic regimes" and "is likely to remain useful". On the nuclear attacks on Japan in World War II, he adhered to the view that "there was even less sign of a crack in Japan's determination to fight to the end [compared with that of Nazi Germany], which is why nuclear arms were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki to ensure a rapid Japanese surrender". He also believed there was an ancillary political, non-military reason for the bombings: "perhaps the thought that it would prevent America's ally the USSR from establishing a claim to a major part in Japan's defeat was not absent from the minds of the US government either." Hobsbawm is also quoted as saying that, next to sex, there is nothing so physically intense as 'participation in a mass demonstration at a time of great public exaltation'.
Praise and criticism
In 1994, Neal Ascherson said of Hobsbawm: "No historian now writing in English can match his overwhelming command of fact and source. But the key word is 'command'. Hobsbawm's capacity to store and retrieve detail has now reached a scale normally approached only by large archives with big staffs". In 2002, Hobsbawm was described by right-leaning magazine The Spectator as "arguably our greatest living historian—not only Britain's, but the world's", while Niall Ferguson wrote: "That Hobsbawm is one of the great historians of his generation is undeniable...His quartet of books beginning with The Age of Revolution and ending with The Age of Extremes constitute the best starting point I know for anyone who wishes to begin studying modern history. Nothing else produced by the British Marxist historians will endure as these books will." In 2003, The New York Times described him as "one of the great British historians of his age, an unapologetic Communist and a polymath whose erudite, elegantly written histories are still widely read in schools here and abroad". James Joll wrote in The New York Review of Books that "Eric Hobsbawm's nineteenth century trilogy is one of the great achievements of historical writing in recent decades". Ian Kershaw said that Hobsbawm's take on the twentieth century, his 1994 book, The Age of Extremes, consisted of "masterly analysis". Meanwhile, Tony Judt, while praising Hobsbawm's vast knowledge and graceful prose, cautioned that Hobsbawm's bias in favour of the USSR, communist states and communism in general, and his tendency to disparage any nationalist movement as passing and irrational, weakened his grasp of parts of the 20th century.
With regard to the impact of his Marxist outlook and sympathies on his scholarship, Ben Pimlott saw it as "a tool not a straitjacket; he's not dialectical or following a party line", although Judt argued that it has "prevented his achieving the analytical distance he does on the 19th century: he isn't as interesting on the Russian revolution because he can't free himself completely from the optimistic vision of earlier years. For the same reason he's not that good on fascism".
British historian David Pryce-Jones conceded that Hobsbawm was "no doubt intelligent and industrious, and he might well have made a notable contribution as a historian", but also charged that Hobsbawm, as a professional historian who has "steadily corrupted knowledge into propaganda, and scorns the concept of objective truth", was "neither a historian nor professional." After reading Age of Extremes, Kremlinologist Robert Conquest concluded that Hobsbawm suffers from a "massive reality denial" regarding the USSR, and John Gray, though praising his work on the nineteenth century, has described Hobsbawm's writings on the post-1914 period as "banal in the extreme. They are also highly evasive. A vast silence surrounds the realities of communism, a refusal to engage which led the late Tony Judt to conclude that Hobsbawm had 'provincialised himself'. It is a damning judgement".
In an 1994 interview on BBC British television with Canadian author and politician Michael Ignatieff (whose grandfather and great-grandfather were ministers of the Czar prior to the Bolshevik Revolution), he shocked viewers when he said that the deaths of millions of Soviet citizens under Stalin would have been worth it if a genuine Communist society had been the result. Hobsbawm argued that, "In a period in which, as you might imagine, mass murder and mass suffering are absolutely universal, the chance of a new world being born in great suffering would still have been worth backing" but, unfortunately, "Soviet Union was not the beginning of the World Revolution". The following year, when asked the same question on BBC Radio 4's Desert Island Discs, that is if "the sacrifice of millions of lives" would have been worth the future communist society, he replied: "That's what we felt when we fought the Second World War", repeating what already said to Michael Ignatieff, "now people says we shouldn't had World War II" because of the massive number of deaths, but in fact, at the time, "very few people ended up by saying 'we think it was wrong [to fight] in World War II'", as World War II was worth fighting.
Tony Judt opined that Hobsbawm "clings to a pernicious illusion of the late Enlightenment: that if one can promise a benevolent outcome it would be worth the human cost. But one of the great lessons of the 20th century is that it's not true. For such a clear-headed writer, he appears blind to the sheer scale of the price paid. I find it tragic, rather than disgraceful." Neil Ascherson believes that, "Eric is not a man for apologising or feeling guilty. He does feel bad about the appalling waste of lives in Soviet communism. But he refuses to acknowledge that he regrets anything. He's not that kind of person." Hobsbawm himself, in his autobiography, wrote that he desires "historical understanding...not agreement, approval or sympathy".
The 1930s aside, Hobsbawm was criticised for never relinquishing his Communist Party membership. Whereas people like Arthur Koestler left the Party after seeing the friendly reception of Nazi foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop in Moscow during the years of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact (1939–1941), Hobsbawm stood firm even after the Soviet invasions of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, though he was against them both. In his review of Hobsbawm's 2002 memoirs, Interesting Times, Niall Ferguson wrote:
Hobsbawm let his membership lapse not long before the party's dissolution in 1991. In his review of Hobsbawm's memoirs, David Pryce-Jones accuses him of actually supporting the invasion of Hungary:
In those memoirs, Hobsbawn wrote: "The dream of the October Revolution is still there somewhere inside me . . . I have abandoned, nay, rejected it, but it has not been obliterated. To this day, I notice myself treating the memory and tradition of the USSR with an indulgence and tenderness." Reviewing the book, David Caute wrote: "One keeps asking of Hobsbawm: didn't you know what Deutscher and Orwell knew? Didn't you know about the induced famine, the horrors of collectivisation, the false confessions, the terror within the Party, the massive forced labour of the gulag? As Orwell himself documented, a great deal of evidence was reliably knowable even before 1939, but Hobsbawm pleads that much of it was not reliably knowable until Khrushchev's denunciation of Stalin in 1956."
Reviewing the same book, Francis Wheen argued in a similar vein: "When writing about how the anti-fascist campaigns of the 1930s brought new recruits to the communist cause, he cannot even bring himself to mention the Hitler-Stalin pact, referring only to 'temporary episodes such as 1939–41'. The Soviet invasion of Hungary and the crushing of the Prague Spring are skipped over."
David Evanier, in an article published in the American conservative magazine The Weekly Standard, called Hobsbawm "Stalin's cheerleader", writing: "One can learn almost nothing about the history of communism from Hobsbawm's Interesting Times—nothing about the show trials, the torture and execution of millions, the Communist betrayal of Spain."
A more balanced conservative assessment of Hobsbawm came from Matthew Walther in National Review. While attacking Hobsbawm for his communist sympathies and his purported views about Israel, Walther wrote that "There is no denying his [Hobsbawm's] intelligence and erudition" and concluded that "if Hobsbawm is read 50 or 100 years from now, it will probably be despite rather than because of his politics."
In 2008, the historian Tony Judt summed up Hobsbawm's career thus: "Eric J. Hobsbawm was a brilliant historian in the great English tradition of narrative history. On everything he touched he wrote much better, had usually read much more, and had a broader and subtler understanding than his more fashionable emulators. If he had not been a lifelong Communist he would be remembered simply as one of the great historians of the 20th century".
In the early hours of 1 October 2012, Hobsbawm died at the Royal Free Hospital in London. His daughter Julia confirmed that he died of pneumonia, while suffering complications of his leukemia. She said,
Following Hobsbawm's death reactions included praise for his "sheer academic productivity and prowess" and "tough reasoning" in The Guardian. Reacting to news of Hobsbawm's death, Ed Miliband called him "an extraordinary historian, a man passionate about his politics [...] He brought history out of the ivory tower and into people's lives". He was cremated at Golders Green Crematorium and his ashes were interred in Highgate Cemetery. A memorial service for Hobsbawm was held at the New School in October 2013.
Partial publication list
|Labour's Turning Point: Extracts from Contemporary Sources||1948||Lawrence & Wishart||ISBN 0-901759-65-1|
|Primitive Rebels: Studies in Archaic Forms of Social Movement in the 19th and 20th centuries||1959, 1963, 1971||Manchester University Press||ISBN 0-7190-0493-4||in the US: Social Bandits and Primitive Rebels, Free Press, 1960|
|The Jazz Scene||1959||Weidenfeld & Nicolson||ISBN 0-297-79568-6||as Francis Newton|
|The Age of Revolution: Europe 1789-1848||1962||Abacus (UK)
Vintage Books (U.S.)
|Labouring Men: studies in the history of labour||1964||Weidenfeld & Nicolson||ISBN 0-297-76402-0|
|Pre-Capitalist Economic Formations||1965||Lawrence & Wishart||ISBN 0-7178-0165-9||editor; essays by Karl Marx|
|Industry and Empire: From 1750 to the Present Day||1968||Pelican||ISBN 0-14-013749-1|
|Bandits||1969||Weidenfeld & Nicolson||ISBN 0-394-74850-6|
|Captain Swing||1969||Lawrence & Wishart||ISBN 0-85315-175-X||with George Rudé|
|Revolutionaries: Contemporary Essays||1973||Weidenfeld & Nicolson||ISBN 0-297-76549-3|
|The Age of Capital: 1848-1875||1975||Weidenfeld & Nicolson||ISBN 0-297-76992-8|
|Italian Road to Socialism: An Interview by Eric Hobsbawm with Giorgio Napolitano||1977||Lawrence Hill and Co||ISBN 0-88208-082-2|
|The History of Marxism: Marxism in Marx's day, Vol. 1||1982||Harvester Press||ISBN 0-253-32812-8||editor|
|The Invention of Tradition||1983||Cambridge University Press||ISBN 0-521-43773-3||editor, with Terence Ranger|
|Worlds of Labour: Further Studies in the History of Labour||1984||Weidenfeld & Nicolson||ISBN 0-297-78509-5||in the US as Workers: Worlds of Labor, Pantheon Books, 1984|
|The Age of Empire: 1875–1914||1987||Weidenfeld & Nicolson (First Edition)||ISBN 0-521-43773-3|
|Politics for a Rational Left: Political Writing, 1977–1988||1989||Verso||ISBN 0-86091-958-7|
|Echoes of the Marseillaise: Two Centuries Look Back on the French Revolution||1990||Verso||ISBN 0-86091-937-4|
|Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality||1991||Cambridge University Press||ISBN 0-521-43961-2|
|The Age of Extremes: The Short Twentieth Century, 1914–1991||1994||Michael Joseph (UK)
Vintage Books (U.S.)
|ISBN 0-679-73005-2||along with its three prequels: The Making of the Modern World, The Folio Society, London, 2005|
|Art and Power: Europe Under the Dictators exhibition catalogue||1995||Hayward Gallery||ISBN 0-500-23719-0||editor, with Dawn Ades, David Elliott, Boyd Whyte Iain and Tim Benton|
|On History||1997||Weidenfeld & Nicolson||ISBN 0-349-11050-6|
|1968 Magnum Throughout the World||1998||Hazan||ISBN 2-85025-588-2||editor, with Marc Weitzmann|
|Behind the Times: Decline and Fall of the Twentieth-Century Avant-Gardes||1998||Thames and Hudson||ISBN 0-500-55031-X|
|Uncommon People: Resistance, Rebellion and Jazz||1998||Weidenfeld & Nicolson||ISBN 0-297-81916-X|
|Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, The Communist Manifesto: A Modern Edition||1998||Verso||ISBN 1-85984-898-2||editor|
|The New Century: In Conversation with Antonio Polito||2000||Little, Brown||ISBN 0-316-85429-8||in the US: On the Edge of the New Century, The New Press, 2001|
|Interesting Times: A Twentieth-Century life||2002||Allen Lane||ISBN 0-7139-9581-5||autobiography|
|Globalisation, Democracy and Terrorism||2007||Little, Brown||ISBN 0-316-02782-0||a part of it in the US: On Empire: America, War, and Global Supremacy, Pantheon, 2008|
|How to Change the World: Tales of Marx and Marxism||2011||Little, Brown||ISBN 1-4087-0287-8|
|Fractured Times: Culture and Society in the 20th Century||2013||Little, Brown||ISBN 14087-0428-5|
|Viva la Revolucion: Hobsbawm on Latin America||2016||Little, Brown||ISBN 14087-0707-1||Collected political and historical essays on the history of Latin America|
Honours and awards
- 1973: Honorary Fellow, King's College, Cambridge
- 1978: Fellow of the British Academy
- 1995: Deutscher Memorial Prize; Lionel Gelber Prize
- 1996: Wolfson History Oeuvre Prize
- 1998: Companion of Honour, Order of the Companions of Honour
- 1999: Buchpreis zur Europäischen Verständigung Leipziger Buchpreis zur Europäischen Verständigung (Hauptpreis)
- 1999: Honorary degree from Universidad de la República Montevideo, Uruguay
- 2000: Ernst Bloch Prize
- 2003: Balzan Prize recipient
- 2006: Fellow of the Royal Society of Literature
- 2008: Honorary citizenship from Vienna
- 2008: Honorary degree from University of Vienna
- 2008: Honorary degree from Charles University in Prague
- 2008: Bochum History Prize
- ^ "Companions of Honour". The Official Website of the British Monarchy. Archived from the original on 23 December 2011. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ "Officers of the College". Birkbeck. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ William Grimes (1 October 2012). "Eric J. Hobsbawm, Marxist Historian, Dies at 95". The New York Times. Retrieved 4 October 2012.
- ^ Maya Jaggi (14 September 2002). "A question of faith". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ The Economist, 6 October 2012, p. 108.
- ^ Julia Hobsbawm (4 April 2005). "My Life In Media". The Independent. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ "Author profile: Julia Hobsbawm". Atlantic Books. Archived from the original on 13 January 2012. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ John Nathan, "Interview: Joss Bennathan", The Jewish Chronicle Online, 14 January 2010; retrieved 2 June 2013.
- ^ Ascherson, Neil (2 October 1994). "Profile: The age of Hobsbawm". The Independent on Sunday. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- ^ Pryce-Jones, David (2003). "Eric Hobsbawm: lying to the credulous". The New Criterion. 21 (5). Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- ^ "Book of Members, 1780–2011: Chapter H" (PDF). American Academy of Arts and Sciences. p. 277. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ "Eric Hobsbawm (1990): Nations and Nationalism since 1780 (excerpt)". The Nationalism Project. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ Brad DeLong (9 March 2007) . "Low Marx: A Review of Eric Hobsbawm's Age of Extremes". DeLong's personal blog. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ "Eric Hobsbawm Speaks on His New Memoir". UCLA International Institute. 29 January 2004. Archived from the original on 2 March 2004. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- ^ Perry Anderson (3 October 2002). "The Age of EJH". London Review of Books. 24 (19). Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ Danny Yee. "Book Reviews: Eric Hobsbawm". DannyReviews.com. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ "Author profile: Eric Hobsbawm". Random House. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ Eric Hobsbawm (8 November 1963). "Beatles and before". New Statesman. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ Pimlott, Herbert (2005). "From "Old Left" to "New Labour"? Eric Hobsbawm and the rhetoric of "realistic Marxism"". Labour/Le Travail. 56: 175–197. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- ^ Hobsbawm, Eric. "The Forward March of Labour Halted?" (PDF). Marxism Today (September 1978). Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ Hunt, Tristram (22 September 2002). "Man of the extreme century". The Observer. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- ^ Eric Hobsbawm (10 April 2009). "Socialism has failed. Now capitalism is bankrupt. So what comes next?". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ John Crace (Summer 2007). "Interview with Eric Hobsbawm on his 90th birthday". BBK Magazine. Birkbeck. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ "Eric Hobsbawm: Observer special". The Observer. 22 September 2002. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ Carlin, Norah; Birchall, Ian (Autumn 1983). "Eric Hobsbawm and the working class". International Socialism Journal. 2 (21): 88–116. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ Tim Adams (21 January 2001). "The lion of the Left". The Observer. Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ Eric Hobsbawm (24 January 2008). "Diary". London Review of Books. 30 (2). Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ "Eric Hobsbawm". 032c. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- ^ The Age of Extremes. p. 393.
- ^ How to Change the World. p. 268.
- ^ How to Change the World. p. 386.
- ^ "Long live the Queen?". Prospect (181). 23 March 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2012.
- ^ The Age of Extremes, p. 42.
- ^ The Age of Extremes, p. 27.
- ^ David Caute (19 October 2002). "Great helmsman or mad wrecker". The Spectator. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- ^ Ferguson, Niall (22 September 2002), "What a swell party it was . . . for him", The Daily Telegraph, retrieved 24 May 2012
- ^ Michael Moynihan (20 August 2011). "How a True Believer Keeps the Faith". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- ^ Quoted on the dust jacket of The Age of Extremes.
- ^ Kershaw 2001, p. 597, note 1.
- ^ Tony Judt (20 November 2003). "The Last Romantic". The New York Review of Books. 50 (18). Retrieved 9 January 2012.
- ^ John Gray (20 January 2011). "The piety and provincialism of Eric Hobsbawm: Following a false prophet". New Statesman. Retrieved 10 January 2012.
- ^ "Michael Ignatieff interviews Eric Hobsbawm". The Late Show. BBC. 24 October 1994. Retrieved 5 June 2013.
The exchange in question occurs at 10:57 on YouTube.
- ^ Oliver Kamm (23 July 2004). "It takes an intellectual to find excuses for Stalinism". The Times. Retrieved 8 January 2012.
- ^ Ghodsee, Kristen (2017). Red Hangover: Legacies of Twentieth-Century Communism. Duke University Press. pp. 137–138. ISBN 978-0822369493.
- ^ Interesting Times. p. xii.
- ^ Snyder 2010, p. 116.
- ^ Interesting Times. p. 56.
- ^ Wheen, Francis (21 January 2011). "Review: How to Change the World". Financial Times. Retrieved 24 May 2012.
- ^ David Evanier (19 May 2003). "Stalin's cheerleader". The Weekly Standard.
- ^ Walther, Matthew (25 November 2013). "Eric the Red". National Review: 27–28.
- ^ "Historian Eric Hobsbawm dies, aged 95". BBC News. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- ^ "Historian Eric Hobsbawm dies at 95". The Hindu. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 1 October 2012.
- ^ "Eric Hobsbawm 1917–2012: not the end of history". The Guardian. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- ^ "Historian Eric Hobsbawm dies, aged 95". BBC News. 1 October 2012. Retrieved 3 October 2012.
- ^ Primitive rebels; studies in archaic forms of social movement in the 19th and 20th centuries
- ^ Kelly Boyd, Encyclopedia of Historians & Historical Writing, Volume 14, Issue 1, p. 547.
- ^ "Art and Power: Europe Under the Dictators (1930–1945)". Deutsches Historisches Museum. 1996. Retrieved 26 January 2012.
- ^ Terry Eagleton (3 March 2011). "Indomitable". London Review of Books. 33 (5). Retrieved 11 January 2012.
- ^ "Royal Society of Literature All Fellows". Royal Society of Literature. Archived from the original on 5 March 2010. Retrieved 9 August 2010.
- Blackledge, Paul (2012). "Eric Hobsbawm (1917-2012)". Socialist Review 374. London.
- Bounds, Philip, "From Folk to Jazz: Eric Hobsbawm, British Communism and Cultural Studies", Critique: Journal of Socialist Theory, Vol. 40 No. 4, 2012, pp. 575–593.
- Campbell, J. "Towards the Great Decision: review of The Age of Empire" from Times Literary Supplement, Volume 4428, 12 February 1988, p. 153.
- Carlin, Norah & Birchall, Ian, "Eric Hobsbawm and the working class", from International Socialism, No.2:21, Autumn 1983.
- Cronin, J. "Creating a Marxist Historiography: the contribution of Hobsbawm" from Radical History Review, Volume 19, 1979, pp. 87–109.
- Elliott, Gregory, Hobsbawm: History and Politics, London: Pluto Press, 2010.
- Genovese, Eugene "The Squandered Century: review of The Age of Extremes" from The New Republic, Volume 212, 17 April 1995, pp. 38–43
- Hampson, Norman. "All for the Better? review of Echoes of the Marseillaise" from Times Literary Supplement, Volume 4550, 15 June 1990, p. 637.
- Judt, Tony. "Downhill All the Way: review of The Age of Extremes" from New York Review of Books, 25 May 1995, Volume 49, Issue # 9, pp. 20–25.
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